... رفرنس نویسی ...
.... ............................................................................ ......... ...
............ رفرنس نویسی هاروارد  ...................................
منبع نویسی
  .
  منبع نویسی هاروارد (Harvard system)
   
........................... این روش منبع نویسی که به نام سیستم "نویسنده-تاریخ" نیز شناخته می شود از روش های  منبع نویسی در بعضی از مجله های علوم پزشکی می باشد. توسعه اولیه این روش منبع نویسی توسط دانشگاه پزشکی هاروارد بنیان نهاده شد. استناد در داخل متن این سبک تا حدودی پیچیده است و نیاز به دقت زیاد دارد.

استناد در داخل متن
استناد در داخل متن در سبک هاروارد بسیار متنوع است و از قانون نویسنده و تاریخ پیروی می کند.

استناد در پایان متن
منابع به ترتیب حروف الفبا در فهرست منابع ظاهر می شوند.

کتاب شناسی (Bibliography):
برای منابعی که  در متن مورد استفاده قرار نگرفته اند ولی شما برای انجام کارتان از آن مشورت گرفته اید یا بهره جسته اید استفاده می شود.
   
  . شایعترین نمونه های سبک هاروارد در متن
   
 

استناد به نام نویسنده در متن

In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the work of Cormack (1994).

Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) states that 'when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works'.

استناد غیرمستقیم به نام نویسنده در متن 

Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience (Cormack, 1994).

استناد به بیش از یک نویسنده 

Smith (1946) and Jones (1948) have both shown …

Further research in the late forties (Smith, 1946; Jones, 1948) led to major developments …

استناد  به مقاله ای با دو یا سه نویسنده در متن 

White and Brown (2004) in their recent research paper found …

indirectly: Recent research (White and Brown, 2004) suggests that…..

 استناد  به مقاله ای با چهار یا بیشتر نویسنده در متن 

Green, et al. (1995) found that the majority …

indirectly: Recent research (Green, et al., 1995) has found that the majority of

استناد  به نقل قول از مقاله در متن  

Lawrence (1966, p.124) states “we should expect …”

indirectly: This is to be expected (Lawrence, 1966, p.124) …

 

   
  . شایعترین نمونه های سبک هاروارد در پایان متن
   
.........................  

 

مقاله در مجله پرینت شده

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), p.564.

مقاله در پایگاه اطلاعاتی

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website<http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 12 June 2005].

مقاله در اینترنت

Kipper, D. , 2008. Japan’s new dawn, Popular Science and Technology, [online] Available at: <http://www.popsci.com/popsci37b144110vgn/html> [Accessed 22 June 2009].

 چکیده مقاله در پایگاه اطلاعاتی

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Abstract only. Available through: Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website<http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 12 June 2005].

 مقاله در رزونامه

Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. The Times, 3 Sep. p.4b.

 Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. and Smith, D., 2003. Focus: ‘Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online, [online] 1 June. Available at: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/article1138006.ece [Accessed 17 March 2005].

کتاب با نویسنده

Baron, D. P., 2008. Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson.

Adams, R. J.,Weiss, T.D. and Coatie, J.J., 2010. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus.

   
  کتاب ویرایش شده
  Keene, E. ed., 1988. Natural language. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.
  کتاب ترجمه شده
  Canetti, E., 2001. The voices of Marrakesh: a record of a visit. Translated from German by J.A.Underwood. San Francisco: Arion.
 

 پایان نامه

Richmond, J., 2005. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. PhD. Anglia Ruskin University.

 گزارش کنفرانس ها

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 2005. 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.

 Brown, J., 2005. Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. In: UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.

 وبسایت

NHS Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder> [Accessed 10 October 2009 ].

Boots Group Plc., 2003. Corporate social responsibility. [online] Boots Group Plc. Available at: <http://www.Boots-Plc.Com/Information/Info.Asp?Level1id=447&Level 2id=0>[Accessed 23 July 2005].

   
 



  نمونه های سبک هاروارد در متن مقاله
   
 

Author’s name cited in the text

In general, when writing for a professional publication, it is good practice to make reference to other relevant published work. This view has been supported in the work of Cormack (1994).

 Cormack (1994, pp.32-33) states that 'when writing for a professional readership, writers invariably make reference to already published works'.

 

Author’s name not cited directly in the text

Making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience (Cormack, 1994).

 

More than one author cited in the text

Smith (1946) and Jones (1948) have both shown …

 

More than one author not cited directly in the text

Further research in the late forties (Smith, 1946; Jones, 1948) led to major developments …

Recent research (Collins, 1998; Brown, 2001; Davies, 2008) shows that

 

Two or three authors for a work

White and Brown (2004) in their recent research paper found …

indirectly: Recent research (White and Brown, 2004) suggests that…..

 

Four or more authors for a work

Green, et al. (1995) found that the majority …

indirectly: Recent research (Green, et al., 1995) has found that the majority of

 

Several works by one author in different years

as suggested by Patel (1992; 1994) who found that …

indirectly: research in the nineties (Patel, 1992; 1994) found that …

 

Several works by one author in the same year

Earlier research by Dunn (1993a) found that…but later

research suggested again by Dunn (1993b) that …

Bloggs (1993a; b) has stated on more than one occasion that …

 

Chapter authors in edited works

In his work on health information, Smith (1975) states …

 

Corporate authors

… following major pioneering research in 2006 undertaken by the Royal College of Nursing (RCN) it has been shown that …

More recently the RCN (2012) has issued guidelines for …

 

No author

Marketing strategy (Anon., 1999)

 

No date

Smith (n.d.) has written and demonstrated …

indirectly: Earlier research (Smith, n.d.) demonstrated that …

 

Page numbers

Lawrence (1966, p.124) states “we should expect …”

indirectly: This is to be expected (Lawrence, 1966, p.124) …

 

Quoting portions of published text

the author states that “……..”

the author writes that “……..”

On the topic of professional writing and referencing Cormack and Brown (1994, p.32) have stated…

 

Secondary sources (second-hand references)

Research recently carried out in the Greater Manchester area by

indirectly: (Brown, 1966 cited in Bassett, 1986, p.142)

 

Tables and diagrams

(United Nations, 1975 cited in Smith, 2005, p.33)

 

Websites

Recent research on meningitis (BBC, 2009) has shown …

 

Books with one author

 Leading organisations concerned with health (Adams,Weiss and Coatie, 2010 ) have proved that A new theory (Barker, Kirk and Munday, 1988) has challenged traditional thinking …

 

Chapters of edited books

(Samson, 1970)

 

Multiple works by the same author

(Soros, 1966a)

(Soros, 1966b)

 

Magazine or journal articles available on the internet

 (Kipper, 2008)

 

Online newspaper articles

(Chittenden, Rogers and Smith, 2003) 

(Coney, 2009)

 

Acts of Parliament

Finance Act 2007. s.45(9)(b).

 

Law reports

In the recent case of R v White (John Henry) (2005), the defence noted

 

Archive material

(Brown, 1915)

 

Course material / lecture notes – print version

(Williams, 2008)

 

Course material – electronic

(Williams, 2008)

Quotations from written plays

Much speculation has occurred when Malvolio imagines he might marry Olivia, “there is example for’t; the Lady of the Strachy married

 

Interviews

(Ahern, 1999)

 

Blog comments

(Whitton, 2009)

(DGeezer, 2009)

 

Electronic images

(Child placing gauze, n.d.)

(Nimbus 1, n.d.)

(Pepsi, 2009)

(Van Vechten, 1934)

 

YouTube video

The principle research states “The need for substainable development…” (Defra, 2007)







   
...................  نمونه های سبک هاروارد در پایان متن مقاله
 

 

 

Books with one author

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication (this must be a town or city, not a country):Publisher.

Baron, D. P., 2008. Business and the organisation. Chester: Pearson.

Redman, P., 2006. Good essay writing: a social sciences guide. 3rd ed. London: Open University in assoc. with Sage.

 

Books with multiple authors

Authors, Initials., Year. Title of book. Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place: Publisher.

Adams, R. J.,Weiss, T.D. and Coatie, J.J., 2010. The World Health Organisation, its history and impact. London: Perseus.

Barker, R., Kirk, J. and Munday, R.J., 1988. Narrative analysis. 3rd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.

 

Books which are edited

Author, Initials. ed., Year. Title of book. Edition. Place: Publisher.

Keene, E. ed., 1988. Natural language. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press.

Silverman, D.F. and Propp, K.K. eds., 1990. The active interview. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.

Allouche, J. ed., 2006. Corporate social responsibility, Volume 1: concepts, accountability and reporting. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

 

Chapters of edited books

Chapter author(s) surname(s) and initials., Year of chapter. Title of chapter followed by In: Book editor(s) initials first followed by surnames with ed. or eds. after the last name. Year of book. Title of book. Place of publication: Publisher. Chapter number or first and last page numbers followed by fullstop.

Samson, C., 1970. Problems of information studies in history. In: S.Stone, ed. 1980. Humanities information research. Sheffield: CRUS,pp.44-68.

Smith, J., 1975. A source of information. In: W. Jones, ed. 2000. One hundred and one ways to find information about health. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Ch.2.

 

Multiple works by the same author

Author, Initials., Year followed by letter. Title of book. Place: Publisher.

Soros, G., 1966a. The road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Soros, G., 1966b. Beyond the road to serfdom. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

 

Books which have been translated

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. Translated from (language) by (name of translator, initials first, then surname). Place of publication: Publisher.

Canetti, E., 2001. The voices of Marrakesh: a record of a visit. Translated from German by J.A.Underwood. San Francisco: Arion.

 

E-books and pdfs

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication: Publisher. Followed by Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website<http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed date].

Fishman, R., 2005. The rise and fall of suburbia. [e-book] Chester: Castle Press. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website<http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 12 May 2010].

Carlsen, J. and Charters, S. eds. 2007. Global wine tourism. [e-book] Wallingford: CABI Pub. Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website<http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 9 June 2008].

 

For an open access e-book freely available over the internet such as through Google books

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. [e-book] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web address or URL for the e-book [Accessed date].

Cookson, J. and Church, S. eds. 2007. Leisure and the tourist. [e-book] Wallingford: ABS Publishers. Available at: Google Books <http://books.google.com> [Accessed 9 June 2008].

 

For an e-book from specific e-readers and other devices such as Kindle or Nook.

Author, Initials., Year. Title of book. [e-book type] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: e-book source and web address [Accessed date].

Patterson, M. 2012. Lost places in dreams. [Kindle DX version] Transworld Media. Available at: Amazon.co.uk <http://www.amazon.co.uk> [Accessed 9 June 2012].

Pdf documents

Authorship, Year. Title of document. [type of medium] Place of publication (if known): Publisher. Followed by Available at: include web address or URL for the actual pdf, where available [Accessed date].

Bank of England, 2008. Inflation Report. [pdf] Available at: <http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/publications/inflationreport/ir08nov.pdf> [Accessed 20 April 2009].

Department of Health, 2008. Health inequalities: progress and next steps. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at: <http://www.dh.gov.uk/en/Publicationsandstatistics/Publications/PublicationsPolicyAndGuidance/DH_085307> [Accessed 9 June 2008].

Journal articles and newspapers

Print journal articles

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page number(s).

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Political Science Quarterly, 42(6), p.564.

 

Journal articles available from a database

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available. Available through: Source [Accessed date].

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: an in depth look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website<http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 12 June 2005].

 

Magazine or journal articles available on the internet

Authors, Initials., Year . Title of article, Full Title of Magazine, [online] Available at: web address (quote the exact URL for the article) [Accessed date].

Kipper, D. , 2008. Japan’s new dawn, Popular Science and Technology, [online] Available at: <http://www.popsci.com/popsci37b144110vgn/html> [Accessed 22 June 2009].

 

Journal abstract from a database

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article. Full Title of Journal, [type of medium] Volume number (Issue/Part number), Page numbers if available, Abstract only. Available through: Source [Accessed date].

Boughton, J.M., 2002. The Bretton Woods proposal: a brief look. Political Science Quarterly, [e-journal] 42(6). Abstract only. Available through: Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website<http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 12 June 2005].

 

Newspaper articles

Author, Initials., Year. Title of article or column header. Full Title of Newspaper, Day and month before page number and column line.

Slapper, G., 2005. Corporate manslaughter: new issues for lawyers. The Times, 3 Sep. p.4b.

 

Online newspaper articles

Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page. Name of newspaper, [type of medium] Additional date information. Available at: url [Accessed date].

Chittenden, M., Rogers, L. and Smith, D., 2003. Focus: ‘Targetitis ails NHS. Times Online, [online] 1 June. Available at: http://www.timesonline.co.uk/tol/news/uk/scotland/article1138006.ece [Accessed 17 March 2005].

 

USING OTHER SOURCE TYPES

Acts of Parliament

Short title (with key words capitalized) which includes the year followed by the chapter number in brackets. Place of publication: Publisher.

Higher Education Act 2004. (c.8), London: HMSO.

Statutory Instruments

Short title (with key words capitalized). Year. the abbreviation 'SI' followed by the year of publication and the SI number. Place of publication: Publisher.

Public Offers of Securities Regulations 1995. SI 1995/1537. London: HMSO.

Official publications such as Command Papers

Authorship, which may be part of the title. Year. Title, in italics if a separate element, Officially assigned number such as a Command number as it is on the document, within brackets, Place of publication: Publisher.

Royal Commission on civil liability and compensation for personal injury, 1978. (Pearson Report) (Cmnd. 7054) London: HMSO.

 

Law reports

Name of the parties involved in the law case, Year of reporting (in brackets as indicated by the reference you are using) abbreviation for the law reporting series, part number/case number/page reference if available.

Jones v Lipman [1962] 1 WLR 832. Saidi v France (1994) 17 EHRR 251, p.245.

 

Annual reports

Corporate author, Year. Full title of annual report. Place of publication: Publisher.

Marks & Spencer, 2004. The way forward, Annual report 2003-2004. London: Marks & Spencer.

 

Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document or page. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Marks & Spencer, 2004. Annual report 2003-2004. [online] Available at: <http://www-marks-andspencer.co.uk/corporate/annual2003/> [Accessed 4 June 2005].

 

Archive material

Author, Initials., Year. Title of document. [type of medium] Collection, Document number. Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository.

Brown, P.S., 1915. An address to the Farmer. [manuscript] Holdbury Collection. 600. London. Holdbury Library.

 

British Standards and International Standards

Corporate author, Year. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of standard. Place of publication: Publisher.

British Standards Institution, 1990. BS 5555:1990 Recommendations for wiring identification. Milton Keynes: BSI.

 

Corporate author, Year. Identifying letters and numbers and full title of standard. Place of publication: Publisher [online] Available through Anglia Ruskin University Library http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed date]

British Standards Institution, 2011. BS EN 594:2011 Timber structures. Test methods. Racking strength and stiffness of timber frame wall panels. British Standards Online [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library <http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 31 August 2011].

 

Patents

Inventor name, Initials., Assignee.,Year.Title. Place. Patent number (status, if an application).

Graham, C.P., Fonti, L. and Martinez, A.M., American Sugar Co., 1972. Tableting sugar and compositions containing it. U.S. Pat. 3,642,535.Leonard, Y., Super Sports Limited., 2008. Tin can manufacture and method of sealing. Canada. Pat. 12,789,675.

 

Conference report and papers

Authorship, Year. Full title of conference report. Location, Date. Place of publication: Publisher.

UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 2005. 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.

 

Author, Initials., Year. Full title of conference paper. In: followed by editor or name of organisation, Full title of conference. Location, Date. Place of publication: Publisher.

Brown, J., 2005. Evaluating surveys of transparent governance. In: UNDESA (United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs), 6th Global forum on reinventing government: towards participatory and transparent governance. Seoul, Republic of Korea 24-27 May 2005. New York: United Nations.

 

Reports by organisations

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Full title of report. Place: Publisher:

Department of Health, 2001. National service framework for older people. London: Department of Health.

Coulter, A. and Collins, A., 2011. Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me. London: The King's Fund.

 

Authorship/Organisation, Year. Full title of report. [type of medium] Place: Publisher: Available at: include web address/URL [Accessed on date].

Department of Health, 2001. National service framework for older people. [pdf] London: Department of Health. Available at:<http://www.dh.gov.uk/prod_consum_dh/groups/dh_digitalassets/@dh/@en/documents/digitalasset/dh_4071283.pdf> [Accessed 12 September 2011].

Coulter, A. and Collins, A., 2011. Making shared decision-making a reality: no decision about me, without me. [pdf] London: The King's Fund. Available at: <http://www.kingsfund.org.uk/publications/nhs_decisionmaking.html> [Accessed 12 September 2011].

Dissertations and Theses

Author, Initials., Year of publication. Title of dissertation. Level. Official name of University.

Richmond, J., 2005. Customer expectations in the world of electronic banking: a case study of the Bank of Britain. PhD. Anglia Ruskin University.

Fisher, C W., 2008. The legacy of leadership - a study of leadership influence within a single organisation. DEd. University of Sheffield. Available at: <uk.bl.ethos.489114> [Accessed 30.07.2012]

 

European Union (EU) documents

The name of the Institution where the document originates (e.g. Commission)

Form (eg Directive or Decision) Year/Legislation number/Initials of Institution followed by the date it was passed if known, followed by the title, all in italics.

Council Directive 2001/29 /EC of 22 May 2001 on the harmonisation of certain aspects of copyright and related rights in the information society.

Commission Decision 93/42/EEC of 21 December 1992 concerning additional guarantees relating to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis for bovines destined for Denmark.

 

Course material and Lecture notes

Course material / lecture notes – print version

Lecturer/Author, Initials., Year. Title of item, Module Code Module title. HE Institution, unpublished.

Williams, B., 2008. Guide to project management, BD45001S Management. Anglia Ruskin University, unpublished. (See appendix X)

 

Course material – electronic

Lecturer/Author, Initials., Year. Title of item, Module Code Module Title [online via internal VLE], HE Institution. Available at: web address if available over the internet, otherwise indicate if available through WebCT, SharePoint or other virtual learning environment address.[Accessed date].

Williams, B., 2008. Guide to project management, BD45001S Management. [online via internal VLE] Anglia Ruskin University Available at:< J:\AIBS\AIBS Admin\ASSESSMENTMATERIAL\ASSESSMENT MATERIAL 2009-10\IBS & MARKETING &MA ARTS\IBS Sem 2 2009-10 Approved Material\Sem 2> [Accessed Date 13 June 2008].

 

Quotations from written plays

Author, Initials., Year (of the edition). Title of play. Editors, Edition. (only include this if not the first edition) Place of publication: (this must be a town or city, not a country) Publisher.

Shakespeare, W. 1995. Twelfth Night, (World’s Classics series) Warren, R. and Wells, T. eds. Oxford: Oxford University Press

 

Interviews

 Interviewee name, Initials., Year of Interview. Title of Interview (or Interview on..name of programme) Interviewed by …name. [type of medium/format] Name of Channel, Date of transmission, time of transmission.

Ahern, B., 1999. Interview on Morning Ireland Interviewed by John Boyd. [radio] RTE Radio 1, 15 February 1999, 08:30.

 

Press release

Corporate author of press release, Year. Title. Press release, date.

RCN, 2009. RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. Press release, 18 June 2009.

 

Corporate author of press release, Year. Title. [press release] date. Available at: web address [Accessed date].

RCN, 2009. RCN praises health care staff as infections continue to fall. [press release] 18 June 2009. Available at: <http://www.rcn.org.uk/newsevents/news/article/uk/rcn_praises_health_care_staff_as_infections_continue_to_fall> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

 

Religious texts

Name of religious text, Book. Sura or Chapter: Verse An intext reference for the Bible could look like this:

“In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth" (The Bible,Genesis. 1:1)

 

Full title, Year. Place of publication: Publisher.

The Bible: Contemporary English Version, 2000. London: HarperCollins.

 

Reference from a dictionary

Dictionary publisher, Year. Full title of dictionary. Place of publication: Publisher.

Chambers, 2010. Chambers paperback dictionary thesaurus. London: Chambers Harpers Publishers Ltd.

Encycopaedia Britannica, 2012. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. [online] London: Encyclopædia Britannica (UK). Available through: [Accessed 12 June .2011].

 

USING ELECTRONIC SOURCES

Websites

Authorship or Source, Year. Title of web document or web page. [type of medium] (date of update if available) Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

NHS Evidence, 2003. National Library of Guidelines. [online] Available at: <http://www.library.nhs.uk/guidelinesFinder> [Accessed 10 October 2009 ].

 

Publications available from websites

Author or corporate author, Year. Title of document. [type of medium] Place: Producer/Publisher. Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Boots Group Plc., 2003. Corporate social responsibility. [online] Boots Group Plc. Available at: <http://www.Boots-Plc.Com/Information/Info.Asp?Level1id=447&Level 2id=0>[Accessed 23 July 2005].

 

Email correspondence/discussion lists

Name of sender and email address, Year. Message or subject title from posting line. [type of medium] Recipient's name and email address. Date sent: Including time. Available at: URL (e.g. details of where message is archived).[Accessed date].

Jones, P., jones@jones.com, 2005. Mobile phone developments. [email] Message to R G. Schmit (r.g.schmit@syy.ac.uk). Sent Monday 7 June 2005, 08:13. Available at:<http://gog.defer.com/2004_07_01_defer_archive.html> [Accessed 7 July 2005].

 

Blogs

Author/User name, Year. Title of individual blog entry. Blog title, [medium] Blog posting date. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Whitton, Felix, 2009. Conservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk Science blog, [blog] 18 June. Available at: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/jun/18/conservationextinction-open-ground> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

Blog comments

Comment Author, Year. Title of individual blog entry. Blog title, [medium] Comment posting date. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

DGeezer, 2009. Conservationists are not making themselves heard. Guardian.co.uk Science blog, [blog] 18 June, Available at: <http://www.guardian.co.uk/science/blog/2009/jun/18/conservationextinction-open-ground> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

 

Mailing lists

Author, Initial., Year. Subject line, Title of Mailing List. [online] date of message. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Murrey, T., 2009. Sharing good practice, Forum for International Students. [online] 23 June 2009. Available at :<http://www.internationalstudentforum.com> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

 

IMAGES

DVD, video or film

Full title of DVD or video. Year of release. [type of medium] Director. (if relevant) Country of origin: Film studio or maker. (Other relevant details).

Great films from the 80s: a selection of clips from Warner Brothers top films from the 1980s. 2005. [DVD] New York: Warner Brothers.

 

Title. Year of release. [medium] Director. Country of origin: Film studio.

Macbeth, 1948. [film] Directed by Orson Welles. USA: Republic Pictures.

 

Broadcasts

Series title and episode name and number if relevant, Year of broadcast. [type of medium] Broadcasting organisation and Channel, date and time of transmission.

Little Britain, 2006. [TV programme] BBC, BBC2, 30 January 2006 20.00.

 

Pictures, images and photographs

Artist/Photographer’s name (if known), Year of production. Title of image. [type of medium] Collection Details as available (Collection, Document number, Geographical Town/Place: Name of Library/Archive/Repository).

Beaton, C., 1956. Marilyn Monroe. [photograph] (Marilyn Monroe’s own private collection).

 

Artist/Photographer’s name, Year of production. Title of image. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL(Uniform Resource Locator) and additional details of access, such as the routing from the homepage of the source.[Accessed date].

Dean, R. 2008. Tales from Topographic Oceans. [electronic print] Available at: <http://rogerdean.com/store/product_info.php?cPath=4&products_id=88> [Accessed 18 June 2008].

 

Electronic images

Author, Year (image created). Title of work. [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

[Child placing gauze over knee wound] n.d. [image online] Available at:< http://www.dadpal.com/2009/12/wounds-care-help-and-wound-vactherapy.html> [Accessed 01 June 2010].

 

Maps - Print Maps, Digimap and Google Earth

Map publisher (origin), Year of issue. Title of map. Map series, Sheet number, scale, Place of publication: Publisher.

Ordnance Survey, 2006. Chester and North Wales. Landranger series, Sheet 106, 1:50000, Southampton: Ordnance Survey.

 

Map publisher (origin). Year of publication. Created map title, Scale. Source [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library website<http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed date].

Ordinance Survey. 2011. Anglia Ruskin University: Chelmsford Campus, 1:1.500. DINA Digimap [online] Available through: Anglia Ruskin University Library http://libweb.anglia.ac.uk> [Accessed 31 August 2011].

Google Earth version (if applicable). Year data released. Image details -location, co-ordinates, elevation. Data set (if applicable) [online] Available through: URL. [Accessed date].

Google Earth 6.0. 2008. Hylands House and Estates 51°42'39.17"N, 0°26'11.30"W, elevation 60M. 3D Buildings data layer. Available through: http://www.google.com/earth/index.html [Accessed 31 August 2011].

 

Podcast and archived tv programme

Broadcaster/Author, Year. Programme title, Series Title. (if relevant) [type of medium] date of transmission. Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

National Gallery, 2008. Episode Seventeen (March 2008), The National Gallery Monthly Podcast. [podcast] March 2008. Available at: <http://www.nationalgallery.org.uk/podcasts> [Accessed 23 June 2009].

 

YouTube video

Screen name of contributor,Year. Video Title, Series Title. (if relevant) [type of medium] Available at: include web site address/URL (Uniform Resource Locator) [Accessed date].

Mrgeorged, 2009. Top Gear The Stig revealed Full. [video online] Available at:<http://www.youtube.com/watch#!v=eTapK5dRaw4>[Accessed 23 June 2009].

 

UNPUBLISHED WORKS

Unpublished works

Pattison, J., (in press) A new book that I have written. London: Vanity Press

 

Informal or in-house publications

Anglia Ruskin University, 2007. Using the Cochrane Library. [leaflet] August 2007 ed. Cambridge: Anglia Ruskin University.

 

Personal communication

Hindle, E., 2000. Introducing Cow & Gate Omneo Comfort: an infant milk for digestive comfort. [letter] (Personal communication, 2 June 2000). O’Sullivan, S., 2003. Discussion on citation and referencing. [letter] (Personal communication, 5 June 2003).

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